99. Disney’s Larger Holograms, Leap in Hydrogen Fuel, Space-Based Surgery Fellowship

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Summary: News <p><a href="https://newatlas.com/electronics/disney-holobricks-holograms/">Disney's "Holobricks" could stack up for larger holograms</a> | New Atlas (01:03)</p> <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Scientists at Cambridge and Disney Research may be closer to making holograms “less disappointing.”<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">They’ve created new “holobricks” that can stack and tile together to produce large 3D images that can be viewed from multiple angles.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Holograms are three-dimensional virtual images that appear to exist within the real world instead of on a screen. Produced in multiple ways:<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Reflective Screens</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Projections onto fog</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Then you have the classic “Pepper’s Ghost” illusion. Started in the 1860s<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">A brightly lit figure out of the audience's sight below the stage is reflected in a pane of glass placed between the performer and the audience. To the audience, it appears as if the ghost is on stage.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Old ways are low in resolution, while the new system, from Cambridge and Disney, is designed to boost the picture quality with scalable, modular holographic blocks, or holobricks as the team calls them.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Each holobrick is made up of a spatial light modulator, a scanner, and coarse integrated optics.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The system combines three images of the same object from slightly different angles, which creates a sense of depth.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Then light is then sent through a series of lenses that separates the images, so that when it appears on the 2D display on the surface of the holobrick, but from different angles.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Has a resolution of 1024 x 768, a 40-degree field of view and at a cinematic frame rate of 24 frames per second.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Essentially, that means that as you walk around the screen, your view of the virtual object or scene changes with you.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Additionally it is modular, allowing the size of the holograms to be increased.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">There is still more work to do, but the researchers say that the holobricks could open up possibilities like holographic video walls or interactive kiosks.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><a href="https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/obesity-alters-molecular-architecture-of-liver-cells-repairing-structure-reverses-metabolic-disease/">Obesity alters molecular architecture of liver cells; repairing structure reverses metabolic disease</a> | Harvard News (06:23)</p> <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">According to Harvard researchers, cells use their molecular architecture to regulate their metabolic functions, and repairing diseased cells’ architecture to a healthier state can also repair metabolism.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">This could have implications on reversing obesity, and reversing the damage it causes to the body. </li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Gökhan Hotamışlıgi, a Harvard public health professor, mentions the regulatory mechanism they discovered:<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">“The fundamental regulatory mechanism that we discovered can be used to evaluate the susceptibility—or resistance—of individuals to a disease state like obesity, and determine what steps, such as diet, nutrients, or fasting, will reduce, eliminate, or exacerbate these states. We can imagine a whole new array of therapeutic strategies targeting molecular architecture, similar to the restoration of an ailing building or preventing its deterioration.”</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04488-5">study</a> compared liver samples from healthy, lean mice with samples from obese mice with fatty liver disease. </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Using machine learning &amp; AI, along with high-resolution imaging the researchers  generated three-dimensional reconstructions of specialized structures, called organelles, inside cells. <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;"> <a href="https://cdn1.byjus.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Cell-Organelles.jpg">Organelles</a> are the components of the cell. </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Then compared the architecture/structure of the organelles between the lean &amp; obese mice.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">​​The images produced from this research are the most detailed visualization to date of subcellular structures while the cells are still intact in their tissue environment.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Through these analyses, the team determined that obesity leads to dramatic alterations in subcellular molecular architecture, particularly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle involved in the creation and shaping of proteins and lipids.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The team then partially restored the ER’s structure using technologies that can repair molecules and proteins that can reshape cellular membranes to see what would happen.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">“The outcome was really striking—when structure is repaired, so is the cell’s metabolism,” said Ana Paula Arruda, co-lead on the research. “What we are describing here is a whole new way of controlling metabolism by regulating molecular architecture, which is critical for health and disease.”</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><a href="https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/australian-firm-hysata-design-breakthrough-new-green-hydrogen-tech/">Researchers Make 'Giant Leap' to Produce Affordable Renewable Hydrogen</a> | Good News Network (11:53)</p> <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">An Australian company, Hysata, has invented a totally new electrolyzer to expand use of hydrogen fuel, which they say represents the first real revolution in the technology in 200 years.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Electrolyzer is the device that would separate water into hydrogen gas and oxygen with electrical current</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">In more detail, an electrolyzer consists of an anode and a cathode separated by a sponge-like membrane. <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">H2O is sent into the anode, where its electrons are stripped and turned into electricity, powering whatever it’s connected to.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Positively charged protons cross through the membrane into the cathode, where oxygen is pulled into.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">There, the protons, reunited with their electrons post-electricity harvest, combine with the oxygen to form water and heat.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The company changed the design of the electrolyzer to make the cost of pure hydrogen fuel competitive with fossil fuels.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Decreasing the heat and resistance generated through separating hydrogen.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">In a typical electrolyzer, gas bubbles form, reducing the efficiency of the process, but with this new design, Hysata was able to eliminate the problem.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Resulting in 95% efficiency, or 41.5 kWh per kilogram of hydrogen</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Typical electrolyzer produce 39.4 kWh of energy from 1 kg of hydrogen.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Hysata aren’t just scientists however, and the economics of their electrolyzer make sense. The membranes are easy to manufacture and the process can be automated at scale.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><a href="https://scitechdaily.com/microbes-in-your-gut-may-affect-personality-could-be-associated-with-mental-and-physical-fatigue/">Microbes in Your Gut May Affect Personality – Could Be Associated With Mental and Physical Fatigue</a> | SciTechDaily (16:25)</p> <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Clarkson University researchers are performing research to determine if gut microbiome and metabolomic pathways in the gut could be associated with the personality traits mental energy, mental fatigue, physical energy, and physical fatigue.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Gut metabolomes are small molecules, such as amino acids, enzymes, and co-factors, that are produced in the gut.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">There are thousands of different types of bacteria living in the gut determined by many factors, such as health status, dietary habits, and even physical activity levels.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The researchers performed initial research on a small sample of young physically active adults. <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">The preliminary findings found that there are distinct bacteria and metabolomes that are associated with each personality trait. </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">One bacterium was associated with three of the four personality traits, but none between all four traits.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Bacteria associated with metabolism were associated with either mental or physical energy,</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Bacteria associated with inflammation were associated with mental or physical fatigue. </li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The results build on previous work that reports that mental energy, mental fatigue, physical energy and physical fatigue are four distinct biological moods.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Lead researcher, Ali Boolani, talks on the findings:<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">“These new findings support my previous work where we report that feelings of energy are associated with metabolic processes, while feelings of fatigue are associated with inflammatory processes …  Since we are still learning about the gut microbiome, we don’t know whether if we try to change our personality trait, we might see a change in gut microbiome; or if we try to change our gut microbiome, we might also change our personality trait. Additionally, these findings may help explain some of the interpersonal differences that we see in response to the anti-fatiguing effects of nutritional interventions.”</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Next, Boolani and his team plan to duplicate the current study with samples from a much larger number of participants. </li> </ul> <p> </p> <p><a href="https://interestingengineering.com/spacex-is-hosting-a-new-fellowship-on-space-based-surgery-it-could-save-lives">SpaceX is hosting a new fellowship on space-based surgery. It could save lives</a> | Interesting Engineering (20:39)</p> <ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Performing simple tasks in space becomes difficult, so you can imagine performing surgery would be even more difficult. </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">In a bid to start tackling that issue head on, SpaceX has partnered with the University of Arizona and Banner Health to host the first-ever Aerospace Surgery Fellowship starting this July.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">All according to a <a href="https://www.bannerhealth.com/newsroom/press-releases/spacex">press release</a> by Banner health.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The APEX fellowship will last for a year</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">It will be the first-ever fellowship training program in the U.S. to go beyond medical oversight for astronauts, delving into the field of aerospace surgery.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">Aims to train future astronaut surgeons, who will travel to space with the express goal of keeping their fellow space explorers alive.</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">The APEX Aerospace Surgery Fellowship will bring expert surgeons and physicians together in the U.S., helping them prepare to work in the commercial aerospace medical field.<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">They will form a part of the medical teams serving upcoming missions launched by SpaceX, NASA, and other space programs.</li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Fellows will have the opportunity to spend six months conducting research with SpaceX, the world's leading launch provider. </li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">Nathanial Soper, executive director for general surgery at Banner, talked on the fellowship:<ul> <li style="font-weight:400;">"Individuals who train in this program will not only be qualified to support the space program personally … they will also be on the leading edge of developing the necessary tools and procedures to facilitate this exciting next phase in space exploration. I am truly excited and enthusiastic about our institution being involved in this novel undertaking."</li> </ul> </li> <li style="font-weight:400;">With the backing of SpaceX, which aims to reach the red planet in the 2030s, we may soon breach a new frontier with the world's first space surgery.</li> </ul>