IHMC Evening Lectures
Summary: Video podcast of IHMC's award winning Evening Lecture series. IHMC hosts many noteworthy lectures of general interest to a broad intellectually curious community. The evening lecture series is outstanding and intertwines several prominent themes…science, economic development, health, and civic leadership. These lectures are standing room only.
I’ll talk about how wheels came to bicycles, about the early bikes, about the first boom and what caused it...about what led to the 73-year slump between 1897 and 1970, and who and what lead to the rebirth/comeback after that... Grant Petersen is a 1954 model human and is a well-known figure in the world of bikes as an independent thinker, and a good bicycle designer, and founder of Rivendell Bicycle Works. Grant worked for Bridgestone Cycle for ten years where he designed the XO series of bicycles. In 1994, he founded the Rivendell Bicycle Works, and has been there ever since. Grant is known to be suspect of race-born bicycle technology, and is generally opposed to complicated design and slavish prioritization of speed, light-weight and racing-led fashion — over tradition, comfort and durability. Rivendell specializes in bicycles intended for all sorts of riding outside of competition. In addition to lugged steel frames, signatures of this trend have included leather saddles, downtube or bar-end shifters in place of brifters, and the use of practical handlebars. A reformed racer who’s commuted by bike every day since 1980, Petersen’s writings and opinions appear in major bicycling and outdoor magazines. Grant Petersen shares a lifetime of unexpected facts, controversial opinions, expert techniques, and his own maverick philosophy. He has written four books, the most recent ones being “Just Ride: A Radically Practical Guide To Riding Your Bike” and his newest book is the recently released “Eat Bacon, Don’t Jog.” Grant lives in California with his wife of 28 years, and has two daughters in college.
Most of the world’s population, even in developed countries, has inadequate intake of one or more of the 30 essential vitamins and minerals. An unbalanced diet with too much refined food provides calories, but not enough vitamins and minerals. Triage theory posits that, as a result of recurrent shortages of vitamins and minerals during evolution, natural selection developed a strategic rationing response to moderate shortages so that the scarce vitamins and minerals are preferentially retained by vitamin and mineral-dependent proteins that are essential for short-term survival and reproduction. In contrast, proteins needed for long-term health, which I term “longevity proteins” because they defend against the diseases associated with aging, are starved for the vitamins and minerals and thus are disabled. Moreover, since the damage from moderate deficiency is insidious, its importance for long-term health is not clinically apparent. Strong support for triage theory comes from our analyses of published data on proteins dependent on vitamin K and on selenium. Both of these have built into metabolism a triage-like trade-off between short-term survival and long-term health; each uses a different mechanism to accomplish this end. Mechanistic, genetic, and epidemiological evidence suggests that this metabolic trade-off accelerates aging-associated diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune dysfunction, and cognitive decline. Much of the U.S. population is currently well below the official U.S. Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirements for many important vitamins and minerals. This is especially true for children, adolescents, elders, and the obese. The U.S. population also has a very low intake of DHA/EPA omega-3 intake. About half of the proteins we have studied are longevity proteins. This implies the existence of an undiscovered class of longevity vitamins and minerals, which we are exploring and discovering. Dr. Ames is a Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, and a Senior Scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He was on the board of directors of the National Cancer Institute, the National Cancer Advisory Board, from 1976 to 1982. His awards include: the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Prize (1983), the Tyler Environmental Prize (1985), the Gold Medal Award of the American Institute of Chemists (1991), the Glenn Foundation Award of the Gerontological Society of America (1992), the Honda Prize of the Honda Foundation, Japan (1996), the Japan Prize, (1997), the Medal of the City of Paris (1998), the U.S. National Medal of Science (1998), the Linus Pauling Institute Prize for Health Research (2001), the American Society for Microbiology Lifetime Achievement Award (2001), the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal from the Genetics Society of America (2004), and the American Society for Nutrition/CRN M.S. Rose Award (2008).
Our genes influence the way we absorb and metabolize micronutrients. Nutrigenomics looks at the influence genetic variation has over micronutrient absorption/metabolism and the biological consequences of this dynamic relationship. Our diet also influences which of these genes are turned on or off! Emerging evidence in the field of epigenetics has demonstrated that not only can we change the expression of our own genes within our own lifetime; sometimes these changes are heritable and affect our children and grandchildren. In this talk we’ll be exploring the intersection between genetics, nutrition, and environment: how your diet, micronutrients, exercise, heat stress, and sleep can change the expression of your genes and how this has profound effects on the way your body functions and ages. Rhonda Perciavalle Patrick, Ph.D. is an assistant scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute working with Dr. Bruce Ames. She investigates the effects of micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) deficiencies on metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage, and aging in people. She also researches the role of vitamin D in brain function and dysfunction. In addition to Rhonda’s active role as a researcher, she also functions as a science communicator for a broad lay audience via her web and video presence found at FoundMyFitness.com. She is passionate about disseminating health-related information in a way that the general public can easily understand. She is a frequent speaker and writer on topics ranging from general health and wellness, to diet and aging, to vitamins and their effects. It is Rhonda’s goal to challenge the status quo and encourage the wider public to think about health and longevity using a proactive, preventative approach. Rhonda earned her Ph.D. in biomedical science from the University of Tennessee and performed her graduate research work at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. She also has a Bachelor’s of Science degree in biochemistry/chemistry from the University of California, San Diego. She has done extensive research on aging, cancer and nutrition, and metabolism.
The term ‘tuning’ is well known in the world of musical instruments. Introduced in the realm of architecture and urbanism it describes a phenomenon, a set of relations, which is little spoken of, discussed, let alone mastered, i.e. firstly, the relationship and adequacy of architectural objects with the particular geometric nature of geographic networks, secondly, the dosage of vernacular and classical geometries and/or elements within a building, a group of buildings forming a larger ensemble or indeed an entire city, region, country, continent, civilization. It is the architectural and artistic parallel to Andres Duany’s Urban Transect identifying building- and settlement-patterns, ranging from the rural to the urban. Léon Krier is an architect, architectural theorist and urban planner. He is considered “Godfather” of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture. Krier is committed to the importance of design in creating community. The ideal built environment, to Krier, is the small- scale town or traditional city where people work within walking distance of their homes. Léon Krier is recognized today as one of the world’s outstanding architects and urbanists. He received the inaugural Richard Driehaus Prize for Classical Architecture in 2003. He is best known for his on going development of Poundbury, an urban extension to Dorchester, UK for the Duchy of Cornwall under the guidance of the Prince of Wales and for his Masterplan for Cayalá, an extension of Guatemala City. He is one of the first and most prominent critics of architectural modernism, mainly of its functional zoning and the ensuing suburbanism, campaigning for the reconstruction of the traditional European city model. These ideas had a great influence on the New Urbanism movement, both in the USA and Europe. The most complete compilation of them is published in his book “The Architecture of Community”. Some of Krier’s other books include “Architecture, Choice or Fate; Albert Speer: Architecture 1932-1942; “Imitation and Innovation” and “The Reconstruction of the European City”. Krier acts as architectural consultant on urban planning projects but only designs buildings of his personal choice. Amongst his best known realizations are the temporary façade at the 1980 Venice Biennale; the Krier house in the resort village of Seaside, Florida, USA (where he also advised on the master plan); the Arqueological Museum of Sintra, Portugal; the Windsor Village Hall Florida; the Jorge M. Perez Architecture Center on the campus of the University of Miami in Miami, Florida; and the new Neighbourhood Center Città Nuova in Alessandria, Italy. Currently Léon Krier is involved in the planning for the reconstruction of Tor Bella Monaca, a degraded suburb of Rome.
In the past three decades new research has revealed that dolphin brains are not only large but are extremely complex in their organization, forming the neurobiological basis for the considerable intelligence and socio-cultural characteristics of dolphins and their relatives, the whales. Dolphin brains are larger than expected for their body size and contain numerous features associated with sophisticated perceptual and cognitive abilities, e.g., echolocation, communication, cooperation and dynamic social networks, cultural transmission of learned behaviors, and self-awareness, to name a few. Because of their very different evolutionary history from our own primate lineage, dolphin and whale brains evolved along very different lines than primate brains. The story of their evolution, dating back 55 million years, is a fascinating example of an alternative route to sophisticated intelligence in different species. Dr. Lori Marino is a neuroscientist, focused on animal behavior and intelligence, and was on the faculty at Emory University for 19 years. She is the founder and Executive Director of The Kimmela Center for Animal Advocacy, a non-profit organization dedicated to academic and scholarship-based advocacy for other animals. Dr. Marino has gained international prominence for her noninvasive research into dolphin and whale brains and intelligence and comparisons with primates. She has authored over 100 peer-reviewed papers, book chapters, and magazine articles on marine mammal biology and cognition, comparative neuroanatomy, self-awareness in other animals, human-nonhuman animal relationships, and animal welfare and protection. Dr. Marino co-authored a 2001 ground-breaking study showing that dolphins can recognize themselves in mirrors and she is currently the coauthor of a new paper on auditory pathways in dolphin brains. Dr. Marino was recently featured as a National Geographic Innovator and appears in several films and television programs including the powerful documentary Blackfish, about killer whale captivity, The Ghosts in Our Machine, about the lives of individual animals who we employ as part of our modern society, and Inside Animal Minds, a 2014 BBC special on the evolution of dolphin and whale brains. Dr. Marino is also currently senior scientist for the Someone, Not Something Project, a collaboration between Farm Sanctuary and The Kimmela Center focused on cognition and intelligence in farm animals.
The University of Sheffield has developed Project Sunshine in order to harness the power of the sun to tackle the biggest global challenge: meeting the increasing food and energy needs of the world’s population in the context of an uncertain climate and global environment change. It unites world-leading researchers from across the faculties of Science, Engineering and Social Science at the University of Sheffield. Together, they are developing new ways to use the Sun’s energy more efficiently to increase food production and provide more renewable energy. Tony Ryan is the Pro-Vice-Chancellor for the Faculty of Science at the University of Sheffield where he was previously the ICI Professor of Physical Chemistry, Head of the Chemistry Department and Director of the Polymer Centre. His research covers the synthesis, structure, processing and properties of polymers and their use in a wide range of applications including energy capture, wound healing, drug delivery as well as paint, soft-furnishings and packaging. He has co-authored more than 300 papers and has an H-index of 58. His 1998 text book, with Arthur Wilkinson, on polymer processing is used world-wide and in 2014 he published a book on sustainability, “The Solar Revolution”, co-authored with Steve McKevitt, a social scientist, and it has had great reviews; it puts into context how we come to live on a planet supporting 7 billion people and what we have to do make sure in remains inhabitable (and prosperous) for the foreseeable future. Tony presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on Channel 4 in 2002 and is a regular contributor to TV, radio and newspapers. He was born in Leeds and has three degrees from UMIST. Married with two daughters, Tony is a creative cook, a keen cyclist and an occasional mountaineer and skier. He was made an OBE in 2006 for ‘Services to Science’.
Emerging evidence indicates that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease involving disturbances in energy production through respiration and fermentation. Cancer is suppressed following transfer of the nucleus from the tumor cell to cytoplasm of normal cells containing normal mitochondria. These findings indicate that nuclear genetic abnormalities cannot be responsible for cancer despite commonly held beliefs in the cancer field. The genomic instability observed in tumor cells and all other recognized hallmarks of cancer are considered downstream epiphenomena of the initial disturbance of cellular energy metabolism. The disturbances in tumor cell energy metabolism can be linked to abnormalities in the structure and function of the mitochondria. Cancer growth and progression can be managed following a whole-body transition from fermentable metabolites, primarily glucose and glutamine, to respiratory metabolites, primarily ketone bodies. This transition will reduce tumor vascularity and inflammation while enhancing tumor cell death. A novel “press-pulse” therapeutic strategy is in development for the non-toxic metabolic management of cancer. Malignant brain cancer in preclinical models and humans will be used to illustrate general concepts. As each individual is a unique metabolic entity, personalization of metabolic therapy as a broadbased cancer treatment strategy will require finetuning to match the therapy to an individual’s unique physiology. Thomas N. Seyfried received his Ph.D. in Genetics and Biochemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana, in 1976. He did his undergraduate work at the University of New England, where he recently received the distinguished Alumni Achievement Award. He also holds a Master’s degree in Genetics from Illinois State University. Thomas Seyfried served with distinction in the United States Army’s First Cavalry Division during the Vietnam War and received numerous medals and commendations. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Neurology at the Yale University School of Medicine and then served on the faculty as an Assistant Professor in Neurology. Other awards and honors have come from such diverse organizations as the American Oil Chemists Society, the National Institutes of Health, The American Society for Neurochemistry, and the Ketogenic Diet Special Interest Group of the American Epilepsy Society. Dr. Seyfried previously served as Chair, Scientific Advisory Committee for the National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association and presently serves on several editorial boards, including those for Nutrition & Metabolism, Neurochemical Research, the Journal of Lipid Research, and ASN Neuro, where he is a Senior Editor. Dr. Seyfried has over 150 peer-reviewed publications and is the author of the book “Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer (Wiley Press).”
The conservation of all wild species rests upon our awareness and basic understanding of the problems, and solutions, that each species confronts. Raptors, or birds of prey, occupy a diverse array of habitat types around the world, including the air, land and sea, and therefore provide us with a multi-faceted view of our world and ecosystems we share. Starting with a focus on a small raptor conservation center in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, we will branch out to explore the natural history and conservation of some of these magnificent animals. Roger Smith has spent his entire professional career in the natural sciences and environmental education. Roger started his professional life as a field biologist researching grizzly bear demographics in northwestern Montana in 1977. He continued to study both grizzly and black bears in Alaska, Maine and Colorado before completing his secondary science degree in 1984. After teaching high school science in Montana, he moved to Jackson Hole in 1985 and joined the resident faculty at the Teton Science School (TSS). At TSS, he designed and implemented field-oriented natural science curriculum for all ages. In 1987, he joined the field staff at the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), leading courses in Wyoming, Texas, Mexico and Kenya. In 1994, Roger completed his Masters degree in Wildlife Biology and Physiology from the University of Wyoming. Roger’s research has focused on raptors and ravens of Grand Teton National Park, and he has continued to pursue this work to this day. In 1994, he helped initiate and manage the Professional Residency in Environmental Education program at the Teton Science School, and was on faculty there until 1999. From 1999 to 2001 Roger worked as a field research biologist with Beringia South, a nonprofit wildlife research and educational institute in Kelly, Wyoming. There, he managed all aspects of independent research, from grant and proposal writing, research, and publication in peer-reviewed professional journals. Roger began the Teton Raptor Center in 1997 with his wife and fellow wildlife biologist Margaret Creel. Since then his focus has been primarily on medical care and public education around raptors of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.
The Floridan Aquifer is one of the state’s most precious natural resources. Replenished by rainfall, the Floridan Aquifer is a finite, natural reservoir that underlies all of Florida. While the Floridan Aquifer contains the highest quality freshwater available in the state, much of it is filled with salt water and is not useable as a potable water supply. The freshwater portion of the aquifer is of inestimable value to Floridians in terms of wide-spread availability and minimal treatment costs. Pumping, transportation, reverse osmosis, and desalinization are from ten to hundreds times more expensive than local groundwater pumping. Florida’s five water management districts are tasked with the wise management of the state’s groundwater resources to protect the natural environment and to provide adequate water supplies for the human economy. Unfortunately, protection of the natural environment, including, springs, rivers, lakes, and wetlands has taken a back seat to providing free groundwater to for- profit enterprises. In the process, the Floridan Aquifer has been polluted and depleted. Multiple lines of research have determined that the cost to correct these mistakes may be in the many billions of dollars. Based on past experience, it is clear that prevention/protection efforts will be much less costly than continuing to diminish our water resources. Dr. Knight, is the founder and director of the Howard T. Odum Florida Springs Institute, a 501c(3) non-profit focused on supporting science and education necessary for restoration and wise management of Florida’s artesian springs. Dr. Knight is an environmental scientist with more than 38 years of professional experience in Florida, including detailed ecological studies at more than 20 large springs. He is former adjunct professor at the University of Florida Department of Environmental Engineering and Sciences where he taught graduate-level classes on the ecology of Florida’s springs and wetlands. Dr. Knight is currently active on research and restoration efforts at the Santa Fe River springs, Kings Bay/Crystal River springs, Ichetucknee Springs, Rainbow Springs, Wakulla Springs, Homosassa Springs, Glen Springs, springs of the Lower Suwannee River, and Silver Springs. Detailed restoration plans have been prepared for these springs, and Dr. Knight is actively working with similar efforts by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the relevant water management districts. Dr. Knight is also active with a number of springs advocacy groups around north Florida that help to educate local governmental officials about groundwater supply and springs protection.
Red Bull Stratos was a privately funded manned stratosphere balloon flight test and free- fall parachute jump program completed in 2012. The test program included unmanned balloon and capsule tests, vertical wind tunnel and high troposphere tests of the drogue and main parachutes and the spacesuit, low-pressure chamber tests of the spacesuit, and integrated thermal and vacuum-chamber tests of the capsule, spacesuit, and parachute and life support systems. A team was formed to develop and implement medical and physiologic support for this program. Issues addressed included development of a protocol for oxygen prebreathe to reduce the risk of decompression sickness, briefing crew members on medical and physiologic threats, medical and physiologic monitoring for the thermal vacuum test phase and stratospheric flights, launch and recovery medical planning, and contingency planning. After a series of progressively more challenging test flights and jumps, on October 14, 2012, Felix Baumgartner ascended to 127,852 ft in a balloon and free-fell 119,431 ft, reaching 843.6 mph (Mach 1.25). Dr. Jonathan B. Clark is an Associate Professor of Neurology and Space Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine. He received a B. S. from Texas A&M University, an M.D. from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and is board certified in Neurology and Aerospace Medicine. Dr. Clark is a Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association. He was a member of the NASA Spacecraft Survival Integrated Investigation Team from 2004 to 2007 and a member of the NASA Constellation Program EVA Systems Standing Review Board from 2007 to 2010. Dr. Clark worked at NASA from 1997 to 2005 and was a Space Shuttle Crew Surgeon on six shuttle missions and was Chief of the Medical Operations Branch. Prior to NASA, Dr. Clark devoted 26 years to active service with the Navy, during which he headed the Spatial Orientation Systems Department at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory in Pensacola; the Aeromedical Department at the Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron One in Yuma, Arizona; and the Neurology Division and Hyperbaric Medicine at the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute. He was a DOD Space Shuttle Support Flight Surgeon covering two space shuttle flights and flew combat medical evacuation missions in Operation Desert Storm with the Marine Corps. He qualified as a Naval Flight Officer, Naval Flight Surgeon, Navy Diver, U.S. Army parachutist and Special Forces Military Freefall Parachutist. Dr. Clark was Medical Director of the Red Bull Stratos Project.
The intestinal epithelium is the largest mucosal surface providing an interface between the external environment and the mammalian host. Its exquisite anatomical and functional arrangements and the finely-tuned coordination of digestive, absorptive, motility, neuroendocrine and immunological functions are testimonial of the complexity of the gastrointestinal system. Also pivotal is the regulation of molecular trafficking between the intestinal lumen and the submucosa via the paracellular space. Under physiological circumstances, this trafficking is safeguarded by the competency of intercellular tight junctions (TJ), structures whose physiological modulation is mediated, among others, by the TJ modulator zonulin. The structural and functional characteristics of intercellular TJ and the protean nature of the intestinal content suggest that the gut mucosa represent the “battlefield” where friends (i.e., nutrients and enteric microflora) and foes (i.e., pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins) need to be selectively recognized to reach an ideal balance between tolerance and immune response to non- self antigens. This balance is achieved by selective antigen trafficking through TJ and their sampling by the gut associated lymphoid tissue. If the tightly regulated trafficking of macromolecules is jeopardized, the excessive flow of non-self antigens in the intestinal submucosa can cause autoimmune disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of autoimmunity, which are based on molecular mimicry and/or the bystander effect, and suggests that the autoimmune process can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing intestinal barrier competency. Alessio Fasano, M.D., founded the Center for Celiac Research in 1996 to offer state-of-the art research, clinical expertise and teaching for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gluten- related disorders, including celiac disease, wheat allergy and gluten sensitivity. In 2003 members of Dr. Fasano’s research team established that celiac disease affects approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population, a significantly higher number than previously believed. Researchers from the Center also have recently identified molecular differences between celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, a newly defined condition on the spectrum of gluten-related disorders. During research designed to develop a cholera vaccine, Dr. Fasano uncovered a toxin, zonula occludens, which causes diarrhea by loosening the tight junctions and allowing intestinal permeability. Subsequently, the Fasano lab identified the protein zonulin, which controls this process. Dr. Fasano’s research since established the role of zonulin in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. Safety and efficacy testing of a zonulin inhibitor, Larazotide acetate, has been completed and plans are underway for Phase III clinical trials of the compound. Dr. Fasano’s lab is currently investigating the composition and changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota to help determine why some individuals with an inherited predisposition to celiac disease develop clinical disease while others do not. His lab is also investigating the role of the timing of gluten introduction to infants in the development of celiac disease and working to uncover a biomarker and to develop a diagnostic tool for gluten sensitivity. In addition, the Center is pursuing possible links between gluten-related disorders and conditions such as schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder in certain subgroups of patients.
Earth’s oceans cover more than 70% of our planet’s surface and constitute more than 95% of its biosphere. The ocean provides more than 50% of the oxygen we breathe, is a major driver of weather and climate, and is the source of food, energy, and cancer- fighting chemicals. Yet more than 95% of the world’s oceans remain unexplored. Ocean exploration and undersea research are changing, with an emphasis on more autonomous sampling and data collection and fewer opportunities for field-based experiences. Telepresence and robotics are currently complementing “manned” ocean exploration, but innovations in undersea technology will be required to increase the pace, scope, and efficiency of ocean exploration and to transform the way we explore. There are lessons to be learned from space exploration. Dr. Shirley Pomponi is Research Professor and Executive Director of the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Florida Atlantic University, in Fort Pierce, Florida, and Professor of Marine Biotechnology in the Bioprocess Engineering Group at Wageningen University, Netherlands. She received her Ph.D. in Biological Oceanography from the University of Miami. Her research focuses on marine biotechnology, in general, and sponge systematics, cell and molecular biology, in particular. She has authored or co-authored more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific publications and is co-inventor on several patents. She has led numerous research expeditions worldwide and has made more than 300 dives in Harbor Branch’s Johnson-Sea-Link submersibles. Dr. Pomponi is a member of the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council and a member and trustee of the Women Divers Hall of Fame. She is currently co-chairing the National Academy of Sciences committee on the Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences 2015.
Unknown to many scientists and practicing physicians, there is nearly a century of data revealing the effect of diet on cancer diagnosis and treatment. More recently, preclinical and clinical data have been confirming this effect. Most notably, the potentiation of radiation therapy and chemotherapy via carbohydrate restriction and intermittent fasting is currently being assessed in clinical trials. Some data has even shown that it may reduce side effects of current cancer treatment. The potential metabolic treatment and management of cancer is an exciting new area in the field of oncology. This presentation will discuss the connection between cancer treatment and diet by highlighting both the historical data and Dr. Champ’s research in the field. Dr. Champ is a board-certified radiation oncologist and assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. He researches cancer treatment as well as diet and nutrition and has been invited to lecture on the topic around the country and world. He is one of the few physicians invited to present academic Oncology Grand Rounds as a resident, an honor usually reserved for experts after years or decades in the field. While only a resident, he published over 20 peer-reviewed articles, started a health and fitness website and company, and co-hosted a podcast that was top-ranked in the U.S., England, and Australia. He has been featured in the Boston Globe, The Gupta Guide with Sanjay Gupta, the National Cancer Institute at the National Institute of Health, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology newsletter, to name only a few. During his medical training, he created Cavemandoctor.com in an effort to simplify the complex aspects of evidence-based medicine for the common reader. The website quickly gained nearly three million readers. He is considered an energetic voice in the field of medicine as he adamantly emphasizes the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Most importantly, he practices what he preaches by stressing a healthy diet and lifestyle for both his patients and himself.
Most of the world’s population, even in developed countries, has inadequate intake of one or more of the ~30 essential vitamins and minerals, mostly used as cofactors by the proteins/ enzymes of metabolism. A varied and balanced diet should provide enough vitamins and minerals; an unbalanced diet with too much refined food provides calories, but not enough vitamins and minerals. Triage theory posits that, as a result of recurrent shortages of vitamins and minerals during evolution, natural selection developed a strategic rationing response to moderate shortages so that the scarce vitamins and minerals are preferentially retained by vitamin and mineral dependent proteins that are essential for short-term survival and reproduction. In contrast, proteins needed for long-term health, which defend against the diseases associated with aging, are starved for the vitamins and minerals and thus are disabled. Moreover, since the damage from moderate deficiency is insidious, its importance for long-term health is not clinically apparent. Strong support for triage theory comes from the analyses of published data on proteins dependent on vitamin K and on selenium. Both of these vitamins and minerals have built into metabolism a triage-like trade- off between short-term survival and long-term health; each uses a different mechanism to accomplish this end. Mechanistic, genetic, and epidemiological evidence suggests that this metabolic trade-off accelerates aging-associated diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune dysfunction, and cognitive decline. Dr. Bruce Ames is a Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, and a Senior Scientist at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and he was on their Commission on Life Sciences. Dr. Ames served on the board of directors of the National Cancer Institute, the National Cancer Advisory Board, from 1976 to 1982. His numerous awards include: the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Prize (1983), the Tyler Environmental Prize (1985), the Gold Medal Award of the American Institute of Chemists (1991), the Glenn Foundation Award of the Gerontological Society of America (1992), the Honda Prize of the Honda Foundation, Japan (1996), the Japan Prize, (1997), the Kehoe Award, American College of Occup. and Environ. Med. (1997), the Medal of the City of Paris (1998), the U.S. National Medal of Science (1998), the Linus Pauling Institute Prize for Health Research (2001), the American Society for Microbiology Lifetime Achievement Award (2001), the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal from the Genetics Society of America (2004), and the American Society for Nutrition/CRN M.S. Rose Award (2008). His 550+ publications have resulted in Dr. Ames being among the few hundred most-cited scientists (in all fields).
Everyone who has observed people knows that their behavior and emotions can change radically when hungry. However, our brains are highly complex metabolic organs that need specific nutrients and not just calories for optimal neurodevelopment and lifelong function. Internationally recognized NIH scientist CAPT Joseph Hibbeln, M.D. takes stock of the impact on mental health of deficits and excesses of brain specific nutrients in our current diets that substantially reduce emotional distress in modern societies. One in five children and one in four adults have mental disorders. Restoring historically normal intakes of omega-3 fatty acids can improve disruptive child behavioral problems including ADHD, by 40%, potentially reducing risk for a lifetime trajectory of disruptive behaviors. Dr. Hibbeln’s observation that the nutritional benefits of eating fish in pregnancy on higher IQ outweigh the small effect of trace mercury, is cited as foundational by The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, the World Health Organization and the FDA. Dr. Hibbeln originated the field of omega-3 fats in depressive disorders and is currently assessing the efficacy of omega-3 fats for reducing suicidal behaviors among US Veterans as the Co-PI of the BRAVO (Better Resilience Among Veterans on Omega-3’s) study. Brain critical nutrients for US military personnel may reduce the burden of mental health and substance abuse problems and increase their reliance to stress. Current diets of our poorest citizens may be especially impoverished in critical brain nutrients and impairing full utilization of educational and social opportunities. CAPT Joseph R. Hibbeln, M.D. is the Acting Chief, Section of Nutritional Neurosciences Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics and Biochemistry, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. He is physician, board-certified in Psychiatry and Neurology, a lipid biochemist, a nutritional epidemiologist, and he serves as a Captain in the United States Public Health Service (USPHS). Dr. Hibbeln has authored more than 120 peer reviewed scientific articles. Dr. Hibbeln is internationally recognized as originating the field of omega-3 fatty acids in depression and impulsive disorders. His active contributions toward understanding nutrition in mental health include being the Co-PI of the BRAVO study which is assessing efficacy of omega-3 fats in reducing risk of suicidal behaviors among US Veterans. He examines if nutrients essential to fundamental brain function can improve child neurodevelopment and reduce risk for aggression, addictive disorders and suicide. He seeks to determine if resuming historically normal intakes of essential fats might substantially reduce emotional distress in modern societies.